Autistic people may have unique skills and abilities, but it’s important to remember that every individual with autism is different and has their own strengths and challenges. Some Autistic people may have exceptional abilities in certain areas, such as music, art, math, or memory, while others may have more difficulty with certain skills.
It’s also important to recognize that everyone, regardless of whether they have autism or not, has their own strengths and challenges.
It’s not fair or accurate to make generalizations about Autistic people, or to assume that they all have special skills or abilities.
It’s important to focus on supporting individuals with autism in a way that meets their individual needs and helps them to reach their full potential. This may involve providing accommodations, such as extra time or a quiet place to work, or working with a therapist or other specialized professionals to address any challenges they may be facing.
If you decide that you want to let people know that you have autism, there are a few things you can do to communicate this information:
- Choose the right time and place: Consider the context in which you want to disclose your autism. Is it a casual conversation with a friend or a more formal setting, such as a job interview? Choose a time and place where you feel comfortable and where you feel that the person you are disclosing to is likely to be receptive.
- Be prepared: Think about what you want to say and how you want to say it. It can be helpful to have a script or outline in mind to help you communicate your thoughts clearly.
- Keep it simple: It’s important to be clear and concise when disclosing your autism. Explain what autism is and how it affects you, but try to avoid going into too much detail or getting sidetracked.
- Be open to questions: It’s natural for people to have questions about autism, especially if they are not familiar with the condition. Be prepared to answer questions and provide additional information if necessary.
- Remember that it’s okay to say no: You have the right to decide whether or not to disclose your autism, and it’s okay to say no if you don’t feel comfortable doing so.
It’s also important to keep in mind that everyone is different, and what works for one person may not work for another. It may take some trial and error to find what works best for you.
It’s ultimately up to you to decide whether or not to disclose your autism to others. There are pros and cons to consider when deciding whether or not to disclose your autism.
- Sharing your diagnosis with others can help them understand why you may have difficulty expressing or interpreting emotions, or why you may communicate or socialize differently than they do.
- Disclosing your autism can help others to be more understanding and supportive of your needs.
- Being open about your autism can also help to raise awareness and reduce stigma surrounding the condition.
- Some people may not understand or may have misconceptions about autism, which could lead to misunderstandings or discrimination.
- Disclosing your autism may also lead to unwanted attention or prying questions.
Ultimately, the decision to disclose your autism is a personal one and should be based on your own comfort level and what you feel is best for you. If you do decide to disclose your autism, it can be helpful to educate others about the condition and to be clear about your needs and preferences.
It’s common for Autistic people to have difficulty expressing their emotions or interpreting the emotions of others. This can lead to misunderstandings and people perceiving them as being emotionless. If you are on the autism spectrum and want to improve your ability to express and recognize emotions, here are a few things you can try:
- Seek support: A therapist or counselor who is experienced in working with individuals on the autism spectrum can provide you with support and guidance as you work on understanding and expressing your emotions.
- Practice identifying and labeling emotions: One way to better understand your own emotions and those of others is to practice identifying and labeling different emotions. You can do this by looking at pictures of people with different facial expressions or reading stories that describe different emotions.
- Learn about nonverbal cues: Paying attention to nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice, can help you better understand the emotions of others.
- Practice social skills: Developing social skills, such as making eye contact, using appropriate body language, and engaging in small talk, can help you better connect with others and convey your emotions.
- Use social stories: Social stories are short, written descriptions of social situations that can help individuals on the autism spectrum better understand and navigate social situations. You may find it helpful to create social stories that focus on emotions and how to express them.
Self-regulation is the ability to manage thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in response to the demands of the environment. It is an important skill that can help individuals cope with stress and navigate challenging situations. Babies and young children with autism may have difficulty with self-regulation due to their limited ability to communicate their needs and emotions and their limited experience with the world around them.
There are several strategies that parents and caregivers of babies with autism can use to help their child self-regulate:
- Provide a predictable and structured environment: A predictable and structured environment can help babies with autism feel more secure and can make it easier for them to understand and respond to the expectations of those around them.
- Use visual supports: Visual supports, such as picture schedules or social stories, can help babies with autism understand and anticipate changes in their environment and can be a helpful tool for self-regulation.
- Engage in sensory activities: Sensory activities, such as playing with playdough or blowing bubbles, can be a helpful way for babies with autism to regulate their sensory input and to cope with stress or anxiety.
- Use verbal and nonverbal communication: Using both verbal and nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions and gestures, can help babies with autism understand and express their emotions and can be a helpful tool for self-regulation.
- Provide comforting touch: Providing comforting touch, such as a hug or a gentle massage, can be a helpful way for babies with autism to regulate their sensory input and to cope with stress or anxiety.
It is important to remember that every child is different and what works for one child may not work for another. It may be helpful to try a variety of strategies and see what works best for your child. It is also important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional for guidance and recommendations based on your child’s specific needs.
There are many tools and equipment that can be helpful for self-regulation, and the best options will depend on your individual needs and preferences. Some tools and equipment that may be helpful for self-regulation include:
- Sensory toys and tools: Sensory toys and tools, such as stress balls, fidget spinners, or therapy putty, can provide a sensory outlet and can be helpful for managing stress or anxiety.
- Weighted blankets or lap pads: Weighted blankets and lap pads can provide a sense of deep pressure touch, which can be calming and soothing for some individuals.
- Noise-cancelling headphones\Ear defenders: Noise-cancelling headphones and Ear-defenders can be helpful for blocking out external noise and distractions and can be a useful tool for regulating sensory input.
- Trampolines or balance boards: Trampolines and balance boards can provide a sensory outlet and can be helpful for regulating sensory input and releasing pent-up energy.
- Aromatherapy diffusers: Aromatherapy diffusers can be used to disperse essential oils into the air, which can have a calming effect on the body and mind.
- Light and sound therapy devices: Light and sound therapy devices, such as a light box or a white noise machine, can be helpful for regulating sensory input and managing stress or anxiety.
It is important to note that everyone is different and what works for one person may not work for another. It may be helpful to try a variety of tools and equipment and see what works best for you. It is also important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional before using any new equipment or tools, as they can provide guidance and recommendations based on your specific needs.
Stimming, or self-stimulatory behavior, is a common characteristic of autism and is often used as a way to regulate sensory input or to cope with stress or anxiety. Stimming can take many forms, such as hand flapping, rocking, spinning, or repeating certain actions or movements. It is important to note that stimming is a normal and often necessary behavior for many individuals on the autism spectrum, and it is not something that should be discouraged or punished.
If you feel ashamed or self-conscious about your stimming behaviors, it may be helpful to remember that these behaviors are a normal and healthy way for you to cope with your environment. It is also important to recognize that everyone is different and that there is no one “right” way to be. It is okay to stim in private if that makes you feel more comfortable, but it is also important to try to find ways to feel more comfortable stimming in public if it is something that is important to you. This might involve finding supportive friends or a therapist who can help you feel more comfortable with your behaviors, or finding ways to communicate your needs to others.
Self-regulation is the ability to manage your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in response to the demands of your environment. It is an important skill that can help you cope with stress and navigate challenging situations. There are many strategies that can be helpful for self-regulation, and it may be helpful to try a variety of techniques to see what works best for you. Some strategies that may be helpful for self-regulation include:
- Deep breathing exercises: Taking slow, deep breaths can help to calm the body and mind and can be a helpful way to regulate sensory input.
- Fidget toys: Using a small, discreet toy, such as a stress ball or a fidget spinner, can provide a sensory outlet and can be helpful for managing stress or anxiety.
- Progressive muscle relaxation: Tensing and relaxing different muscle groups can help to reduce tension and promote relaxation.
- Mindfulness techniques: Focusing on the present moment and being aware of your thoughts and feelings can help you to better manage your emotions and reactions to stress.
- Exercise: Physical activity can be a great way to regulate sensory input and to release pent-up energy.
- Creative activities: Engaging in creative activities such as drawing, painting, or coloring can be a helpful way to regulate sensory input and to express emotions.
- Sensory breaks: Taking a break to engage in a sensory activity, such as listening to music or using a sensory tool, can be a helpful way to regulate sensory input and manage stress or anxiety.
- Seeking support: It can be helpful to talk to a trusted friend, family member, or therapist about your feelings and struggles. Receiving support and understanding can be a powerful way to regulate your emotions and behaviors.
It is important to remember that self-regulation is a skill that can be learned and improved upon over time. It may take some trial and error to find what works best for you, but with practice and patience, you can develop effective self-regulation strategies.
Sensory issues are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and social interaction. People with ASD may also have differences in how they process and respond to sensory information from the environment. They may experience sensory issues in a variety of ways, such as being oversensitive to certain stimuli or being under-sensitive to others.
Some common sensory issues that may be experienced by individuals with ASD include:
- Over-sensitivity to certain stimuli: Some people with ASD may be overly sensitive to certain types of sensory input, such as loud noises, bright lights, or certain textures or smells. They may find these stimuli overwhelming and may try to avoid them or may become agitated or distressed when exposed to them.
- Under-sensitivity to certain stimuli: Other people with ASD may be under-sensitive to certain stimuli and may seek out additional sensory input to help them feel more alert and awake. They may also be prone to accidents or injuries because they do not react appropriately to stimuli such as pain or hot surfaces.
- Difficulty with fine motor skills: Some people with ASD may have difficulty with tasks that require precise movements, such as writing or buttoning a shirt.
- Difficulty with gross motor skills: Others may have difficulty with tasks that require large muscle movements, such as running or jumping.
- Difficulty with balance: Some people with ASD may have difficulty with balance and coordination, which can make activities such as riding a bike or playing sports challenging.
- Difficulty with attention: Some people with ASD may have difficulty with focusing their attention or may become easily distracted by their surroundings.
- Difficulty with social interactions: Sensory issues can also affect social interactions, as people with ASD may have difficulty interpreting social cues or may become overwhelmed in social situations.
Sensory issues can affect different areas of a person’s life, including their ability to learn, communicate, and interact with others. For example, someone who is oversensitive to loud noises may have difficulty in a classroom setting where there is a lot of background noise. Similarly, someone who is under-sensitive to pain may have difficulty understanding and reacting appropriately to social cues, such as facial expressions or body language.
It is important to note that not all individuals with ASD will experience sensory issues, that sensory issues are not unique to ASD and can also occur in people who do not have ASD, and the severity of sensory issues can vary greatly among individuals. If you are concerned about sensory issues in yourself or a loved one with or without ASD, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a doctor or occupational therapist, for a proper evaluation and treatment plan.
For further information:
Seo amlíne ghairid a dhéanann cur síos ar mhórfhorbairtí i stair an uathachais, lena n-áirítear cinn eolaíocha, athruithe ar dhearcadh an phobail agus conspóidí:
- 1908: Chum an síciatraí Gearmánach Eugene Bleuler an téarma “uathachas” chun cur síos a dhéanamh ar chomharthaí roinnt cásanna tromchúiseacha scitsifréine. Déantar cur síos ar an uathachas mar rud a théann siar go dtí an saol inmheánach chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar chruas na réaltachta.
- 1943: D’aithin Leo Kanner, síciatraí leanaí ag Scoil an Leighis Ollscoil Johns Hopkins, uathachas mar neamhord síceolaíoch ar leith i leanaí. Chuir Kanner síos air mar uathachas naíonán luath, arb iad is sainairíonna é comharthaí lena n-áirítear obsessiveness, easnaimh in iompar sóisialta agus gá le céannacht.
- 1944: Rinne Hans Asperger, péidiatraiceoir in Ollscoil Vín, cur síos ar ghrúpa comharthaí den chineál céanna agus chum sé an téarma “síceapaite uathachasach.” Bhí suim ar leith ag Asperger i ndaoine aonair ardfheidhmíochta a léirigh easnaimh shóisialta.
- 1967: Bhí teoiric ag Kanner agus daoine eile gur eascair uathachas as droch-thuismitheoireacht i mblianta tosaigh an linbh. De réir alt a d’fhoilsigh Kanner, b’fhéidir go raibh máithreacha atá fuar go mothúchánach (nó “cuisneoir”) freagrach as comharthaí uathachais ina gcuid leanaí. Bhí Bruno Bettelheim ina mholtóir ar an teoiric seo agus rinne sé an-tóir ar smaoineamh na máithreacha cuisniúcháin.
- 1977: Fuair staidéar a rinne Susan Folstein agus Michael Rutter amach go raibh seans ard ann go dtarlódh uathachas i gceann cúpla dá mbeadh uathachas ag a gcúpla comhionann. I gcás cúpla nach ionann iad, áfach, níor tharla uathachas ar bith sa bheirt deartháireacha. Léirigh an staidéar seo go bhfuil ról tábhachtach ag géineolaíocht i bhforbairt uathachais, ag tabhairt dúshlán don tuairim gur droch-thuismitheoireacht ba chúis leis an uathachas.
- 1980: Chuaigh Uathachas isteach sa Lámhleabhar Diagnóiseach agus Staitistiúil um Neamhoird Meabhrach mar aonán ar leith. Aithníodh uathachas mar neamhord forbraíochta scartha ón scitsifréine, agus baineadh gaolta roimhe seo le láithreacht siabhránachtaí. Roinneadh uathachas i gceithre fhochatagóir: uathachas naíonán, uathachas iarmharach, neamhord forleatach forleatach ó thús na hóige agus foirm aitíopúil.
- 1987: Rinneadh athbhreithniú ar an DSM-III i 1987 chun coincheap an uathachais a leathnú, agus leathnaíodh na critéir chun comharthaí níos séimhe a chur san áireamh. An bhliain chéanna, d’fhoilsigh Ivar Lovaas, ceannródaí na hanailíse iompraíochta feidhmeacha, staidéar a léirigh feabhas ar na hairíonna a bhaineann le leanaí uathacha tar éis dianteiripe iompraíochta.
- 1988: Bhí an scannán “Rain Man” bunaithe ar scéal fear uathachais, Raymond Babbitt, arna léiriú ag Dustin Hoffman. Mhéadaigh an scannán seo feasacht an phobail ar neamhord speictrim an uathachais, ach chruthaigh sé steiréitíopa freisin maidir le cumais daoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu.
- 1990: I 1990, rith Comhdháil na SA reachtaíocht chun uathachas a áireamh sa chatagóir míchumas oideachais. Chuidigh sé seo le daoine aonair a bhfuil uathachas orthu cáiliú d’oideachas speisialta.
- 1994: Scaoileadh an DSM-4 le siondróm Asperger curtha leis mar fhochatagóir ar leith de neamhord speictrim uathachais.
- 1998: D’eisigh Andrew Wakefield agus a chomhghleacaithe tuarascáil san iris Lancet a thug le fios go bhféadfadh an vacsaín bruitíneach, leicneach agus bruitíneach dhearg (MMR) leanaí a chur i mbaol uathachais. Ní raibh ach 12 ábhar i gceist leis an staidéar agus ní raibh rialuithe eolaíocha ann, ach fuair sé aird fhorleathan sna meáin. Tháinig laghdú ar rátaí vacsaínithe MMR dá bharr.
- 2001: Cuireadh deireadh le húsáid thimerosal, leasaitheach mearcair-bhunaithe a úsáidtear i vacsaíní, i vacsaíní óige. Tharla sé seo mar gheall ar an tuairimíocht maidir leis an gcomhlachas idir thimerosal agus uathachas. Thuairiscigh go leor staidéir eolaíocha nach bhfuil aon bhaint idir thimerosal agus uathachas.
- 2009: Léirigh staidéar a foilsíodh in 2014 ag na hIonaid um Rialú agus Cosc ar Ghalair (CDC) go raibh uathachas ag 1 as gach 59 leanbh. Léirigh suirbhé comhchosúil a rinne an CDC in 2002 go raibh uathachas ag gach 1 as 150 leanbh. Creidtear gurb é is cúis leis an ardú seo ar uathachas ná feasacht mhéadaithe uathachais agus athruithe ar chritéir diagnóis uathachais. Mar sin féin, d’fhéadfadh fachtóirí bitheolaíocha cosúil le tuismitheoirí a bhfuil leanaí acu ag aois níos sine a bheith freagrach as an méadú.
- 2013: Eisíodh an DSM-5, a chomhcheangail na fochatagóirí uathachais go léir in aonán diagnóiseach amháin ar a dtugtar “neamhord speictrim an uathachais.” Rinneadh é seo chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar neamhréireachtaí sna critéir a úsáidtear chun diagnóis a dhéanamh.
Cé go raibh go leor dul chun cinn eolaíoch déanta, tá i bhfad níos mó le foghlaim faoi na cúiseanna, an diagnóis agus na modhanna cóireála is fearr don uathachas. Tá taighde reatha ar uathachas dírithe go príomha ar ghéinte a aimsiú a chuireann daoine roimh uathachas. Áirítear le hiarrachtaí eile iarracht a dhéanamh teacht ar dhifríochtaí i ngníomhaíocht inchinne a bhaineann go sonrach le daoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu. Tá roinnt taighde dírithe ar fhachtóirí réamhbhreithe a aithint a chuireann uathachas ar nuabheirthe.
Athraíonn déine agus cineál na hairíonna a bhíonn i láthair i ndaoine le huathachas, agus ní oibríonn an chóireáil chéanna do gach duine. Tá taighde ar siúl faoi láthair chun bealaí chun cóireáil a indibhidiú a mheas.
Go ginearálta úsáidtear cineálacha cur chuige cóireála neamh-chógais éagsúla, lena n-áirítear teiripe urlabhra, teiripe shaothair agus teiripe iompraíochta, chun aghaidh a thabhairt ar chomharthaí uathachais. Tá teiripe iompraíochta feidhmeach ar cheann de na cuir chuige is éifeachtaí, ag múineadh do dhaoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu iompraíochtaí diúltacha a sheachaint agus iompraíochtaí dearfacha a léiriú. Cuimsíonn teiripe iompraíochta feidhmeach scileanna cumarsáide agus sóisialta a theagasc freisin. Tá roinnt taighde dírithe ar bhealaí a fheabhsú le leanaí a bhfuil uathachas orthu a chur i ngleic i suíomh ranga.
I measc na gcur chuige míochaine tá úsáid frith-shícotach cosúil le risperidone agus aripiprazole, agus tá cógais eile á bhfiosrú faoi láthair. Meastar go bhfuil daoine le huathachas tar éis cur isteach ar leibhéil excitation agus coiscthe san inchinn, agus tá drugaí nua a chuireann na leibhéil seo ar ais á imscrúdú freisin. Ós rud é go bhfuil baint ag athruithe sa chóras imdhíonachta le huathachas, tá taighdeoirí ag fiosrú freisin drugaí frith-athlastacha a rialaíonn an córas imdhíonachta. Fuarthas athruithe ar an ngabhdóir nicotín-aicetylcholine freisin i ndaoine a bhfuil uathachas orthu. Tá taighdeoirí ag féachaint an bhféadfadh acmhainneacht theiripeach a bheith ag drugaí nó nicotín féin.
Uaireanta is féidir le neamhord ar speictream an uathachais comhtharlú le neamhoird úsáide substaintí.